Analysis of X-ray Patterns in Infection and Tumor

Cases Series | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | JBST May – August  2021 | Page 5-8 | Dominic Puthoor. DOI:10.13107/jbst.2021.v07i02.47

Author: Dominic Puthoor[1]

[1]Department of Orthopaedic Oncologist, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Dominic Puthoori,
Department of Orthopaedic Oncologist, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
E-mail: dkputhur@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction: In diagnosis of bone tumor, X-ray is as important, if not more important than pathology report. However, X-ray had specific disadvantage. Tumor mimics especially infection can have same appearance as tumor in the X-ray. In this article, author analyzes the different patterns of X-ray changes common to tumor and infection and points outs that X-ray depicts the aggressiveness of the condition rather than a specific diagnosis.

Keywords: X-ray, Bone tumor, Tumor mimics.


References:
1. Mandal AK, Chaudhary S. Text Book of Pathology. Synapse Books. 1st ed. New Delhi, India: Avichal Publishing Company; 2010. p. 51, 113.
2. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC. Robbins and Cotran Pathological Basis of Diseases. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 2010. p. 1205-35.
3. Enneking WF, Bertoni F, The staging system for benign and malignant tumours of the musculoskeletal system. In: Nadarajan M, editors. Article Written in Principles of Orthopedic Oncology; 1997. p. 112-20.
4. Shimose S, Sugita T, Kubo T, Matsuo T, Nobuto H, Ochi M. Differential diagnosis between osteomyelitis and bone tumors. Acta Radiol 2008;49:928-33.
5. Stacy GS, Kapur A. Mimics of bone and soft tissue neoplasms. Radiol Clin North Am 2011;49:1261-86.
6. Dorman HD, Czerniak B. Bone Tumors. 1st ed. United States: Mosby; 1998. p. 22.
7. Puthur D. X-ray patterns common to infection and tumours. Kerala J Orthop 2014;27:73-7.
8. Malawer MM, Sugarbaker PH. Musculoskeletal Cancer Surgery: Treatment of Sarcomas and Allied Diseases. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2001. p. 59, 60.
9. Sutton D. Text Book of Radiology and Imaging. 7th ed. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 1153-60.
10. Miwa S, Otsuka T. Practical use of imaging technique for management of bone and soft tissue tumors. J Orthop Sci 2017;22:391-400.


How to Cite this article: Puthoor D | Analysis of X-ray patterns in infection and tumor. | Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors | May-August 2021; 7(2): 5-8.

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Malignant Transformation of Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia after Surgery: A Case Report

Case Report | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | JBST May- August 2021 | Page 1-4 | Abigail R. Tud, Cesar D. Dimayuga.

DOI:10.13107/jbst.2021.v07i02.46

Author: Abigail R. Tud[1], Cesar D. Dimayuga[1]

[1]Department of Orthopedics, The Medical City, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1605.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Abigail R. Tud,
Musculoskeletal Tumor Unit, Philippine Orthopedic Center, Banawe corner Maria Clara Streets, Santa Mesa Heights, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines 1114.
E-mail: abitud@gmail.com

 


Abstract

Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign lesion characterized by replacement of normal bone with abnormal connective tissue. It occurs in monostotic or polyostotic forms, with a rare but proven potential for malignant transformation. Symptoms of acute pain, rapid swelling, or an enlarging mass should increase suspicion for possible sarcomatous change. Complete surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, and chemotherapy is recommended to improve survival.
Case Report: A 52-year-old male presented with a painful, enlarging mass on the right proximal thigh 2 years after undergoing plate fixation of the distal femur for a pathologic fracture secondary to monostotic FD. Diagnostic imaging revealed signs of recurrence, and core needle biopsy revealed aggressive features suggestive of malignant transformation. Following surgical resection and chemotherapy, the outcome has been uneventful without evidence of recurrence or metastasis at 4-year post-operation.
Conclusion: Malignant transformation in monostotic FD is rare. Symptom exacerbation should increase the suspicion for sarcomatous change and prompt the need for diagnostic imaging as well as histologic confirmation.
Keywords: Fibrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, malignant transformation, secondary sarcoma.


References:
1. Picci P, Sieberova G, Alberghini M, Balladelli A, Vanel D, Hogendoorn PC, et al. Late sarcoma development after curettage and bone grafting of benign bone tumors. Eur J Radiol 2011;77:19-25.
2. Muthusamy S, Conway SA, Subhaeong TY, Temple HT. Locally aggressive fibrous dysplasia mimicking malignancy: A report of four cases and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2015;473:742-50.
3. Qu N, Yao W, Cui X, Zhang H. Malignant transformation in monostotic fibrous dysplasia: Clinical features, imaging features, outcomes in 10 patients, and review. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015;94:e369.
4. Mardekian SK, Tuluc M. Malignant sarcomatous transformation of fibrous dysplasia. Head Neck Pathol 2015;9:100-3.
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8. Doqanavsarqil B, Argin M, Kececi B, Sezak M, Sanli UA, Oztop F. Secondary osteosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia, case report. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2009;129:439-44.
9. Stanton RP, Ippolito E, Springfield D, Lindaman L, Wientroub S, Leet A. The surgical management of fibrous dysplasia of bone. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012;7 Suppl 1:S1.
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11. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Bone Cancer, NCCN Guidelines; 2013. Available from: http://www.nccn.org. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 16].


How to Cite this article: Tud AR, Dimayuga CD| Malignant Transformation of Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia after Surgery: A Case Report | Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors | May-Aug 2021; 7(2): 1-4.

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Distal Ulnar Translocation with Partial Wrist Arthrodesis for Grade III Campanacci Giant Cell Tumors of the Distal Radius – A Case Series

Cases Series | Volume 7 | Issue 1 | JBST January – April 2021 | Page 12-15 | Sivakumar Raju, Prahalad Kumar Singhi, M. Chidambaram, V. Somashekar. DOI: 10.13107/jbst.2021.v0701.43

Author: Sivakumar Raju[1], Prahalad Kumar Singhi[1], M. Chidambaram[1], V. Somashekar[1]

[1]Department of Orthopaedic, Preethi Hospitals Pvt. Ltd., 50 Melur Main Road, Uthangudi, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Prahalad Kumar Singhi,
Consultant Arthroscopy and Trauma Surgeon, Preethi Hospitals Pvt. Ltd., Madurai – 625 107, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail: docpsin2001@yahoo.co.in


Abstract

Introduction: Campanacci Grade III giant cell tumor of distal radius is an uncommon condition with limited treatments options and ulnar translocation is one.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed five cases of Campanacci Grade III tumor in which three were recurrent cases, four female and one male all operated under regional anesthesia (supraclavicular brachial plexus block) with en bloc resection and reconstruction using ulnar translocation with fusion only with proximal carpal row from 2012 to 2018 at our institute. The mean length of tumor resected was 6.74 cm and average follow-up of 60 months. Average union time at radioulnar junction was 4–5 months and ulnocarpal joint was 3–4 months.
Results: Functional outcome was assessed using musculoskeletal tumor society scoring system, 80% had excellent and good outcome, and one patient had extensive recurrence and ended up in below-elbow amputation.
Conclusion: Ulnar translocation with partial wrist arthrodesis is a simple, valid, option with acceptable appearance of forearm, useful wrist function, no donor site morbidity nor need for a microvascular procedure, and no need to achieve complete wrist arthrodesis as compared to other options for reconstruction.
Keywords: Distal radius giant cell tumor, Campanacci Grade III tumor, modified ulnar translocation, partial wrist arthrodesis.


Reference:
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5. Harness NG, Mankin HJ. Giant-cell tumor of the distal forearm. J Hand Surg Am. 2004; 29(2):188-193.Cheng CY, Shih HN, Hsu KY, Hsu RW. Treatment of giant cell tumor of the distal radius.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001; (383):221-228.
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14. Bhagat S, Bansal M, Jandhyala R, et al. Wide excision and ulno-carpal arthrodesis for primary aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours. Int Orthop 2008;32:741-5.
15. Natarajan MV, Chandra Bose J, Viswanath J, Balasubramanian N, Sameer M. Custom prosthetic placement for distal radial tumours. Int Orthop 2009;33:1081-4.
16. Seradge H. Distal ulnar translocation in the treatment of giant-cell tumors of the distal end of the radius. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1982;64-A:67-73.
17. Chalidis BE, Dimitriou CG. Modified ulnar translocation technique for the reconstruction of giant cell tumour of the distal radius. Orthopedics 2008;31:608.
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19. Asavamongkolkul A, Waikakul S, Phimolsarnti R, Kiatisevi P. Functional outcome following excision of a tumour and reconstruction of the distal radius. Int Orthop 2009;33:203
20. SK Saraf, SC Goel, Complications of resection and reconstruction in giant cell tumour of distal end of radius – An analysis, IJO, October 2005, Volume 39: Number 4: P.206-211
21. WILSON, P. D., and LANCE, E. M.: Surgical Reconstruction of the Skeleton following Segmental Resection for Bone Tumors. J. Bone and Joint Surg., 47-A: 1629-1656, Dee. 1965
22. A.Puri, Ulnar translocation after excision of a Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the distal radius, JBJS (br) 2010; 92-B-875-9
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24. Zou C, Lin T, Wang B, et al. Managements of giant cell tumor within the distal radius: A retrospective study of 58 cases from a single center. J Bone Oncol. 2018;14:100211. Published 2018 Dec 14. doi:10.1016/j.jbo.2018.100211.


How to Cite this article: Raju S, Singhi PK, Chidambaram M, Somashekar V | Distal Ulnar Translocation with Partial Wrist Arthrodesis for Grade III Campanacci Giant Cell Tumors of the Distal Radius – A Case Series | Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors | Jan-Apr 2021; 7(1): 12-15.

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A Case Report of Solitary Bone Metastasis from Primary Angiosarcoma of the Bilateral Breasts – A Rare Diagnosis

Case Report | Volume 7 | Issue 1 | JBST January – April 2021 | Page 16-21 | Katrina Ysabel R Naraval, Daniela Kristina D. Carolino, Ma. Lilia Molina P. Jose. DOI: 10.13107/jbst.2021.v07i01.43

Author: Katrina Ysabel R Naraval[1], Daniela Kristina D. Carolino[1], Ma. Lilia Molina P. Jose[1], [2]

[1]Institute of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, St. Luke’s Medical Center, 279 E. Rodriguez Sr. Blvd., Quezon city 1112, Philippines,
[2]Orthopaedic Oncology section, Department of Orthopaedics, The Medical City Clark, Pampanga, Philippines.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Katrina Ysabel R Naraval,
Institute of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, St. Luke’s Medical Center, 279 E. Rodriguez Sr. Blvd., Quezon city 1112, Philippines.
E-mail: khayanaraval@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction: Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is an uncommon subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma known to be aggressive and is associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Solitary bone metastases occurring in these cases are even more rare with the available limited literature based from small retrospective case series.
Case Report: We present a case of a 24-year-old Filipino female previously diagnosed with primary angiosarcoma of the bilateral breasts, initially presenting with a 3-month history of the right hip pain and consulted due to a pathologic fracture of the right proximal femur. Diagnostic tests done confirmed solitary skeletal metastasis to this area, for which she underwent wide resection and application of a proximal femoral endoprosthesis. Postoperatively, the patient was able to independently ambulate, with follow-up radiographs showing stable implant fixation. Further imaging showed that lesion-free bones, however, noted development of distant recurrence manifesting with pulmonary metastases and hemorrhagic subcutaneous lesions 3 months after. Adequate tumor resection and radiotherapy are reported to successfully treat isolated skeletal metastasis in the proximal femur. The presence of the pathologic fracture before definitive treatment may have contributed to its distant recurrence, in addition to an already aggressive nature of the primary malignancy.
Conclusion: In the background of primary breast angiosarcoma, although rare, high suspicion for isolated skeletal metastasis in a symptomatic patient prevents delay in definitive management, which avoids progression to a poorer prognosis.
Keywords: Solitary bone metastasis, angiosarcoma, proximal femur, pathologic fracture.


References:

1. Bordoni D, Bolletta E, Falco G, Cadenelli P, Rocco N, Tessone A, et al. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast. Int J Surg Case Rep 2016;20:12-5.
2. An I, Harman M, Ibiloglu I. Topical ciclopirox olamine 1%: Revisiting a unique antifungal. Indian Dermatol Online J 2017;10:481-5.
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8. Hosaka S, Katagiri H, Honda Y, Wasa J, Murata H, Takahashi M. Clinical outcome for patients of solitary bone only metastasis. J Orthop Sci 2016;21:226-9.
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10. Guzik G. Oncological and functional results after surgical treatment of bone metastases at the proximal femur. BMC Surg 2018;18:2-9.
11. Li N, Cusidó MT, Navarro B, Tresserra F, Baulies S, Ara C, et al. Breast sarcoma. A case report and review of literature. Int J Surg Case Rep 2016;24:203-5.
12. Saimura M, Mitsuyama S, Anan K, Koga K, Ono M, Toyoshima S. A rare case of rapidly progressing angiosarcoma of the breast with multiple metastases to the bone, liver, ovary, and gingiva. Int Cancer Conf J 2012;1:159-63.
13. Soeharno H, Povegliano L, Choong PF. Multimodal treatment of bone metastasis-a surgical perspective. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018;9:518.
14. Khattak MJ, Ashraf U, Nawaz Z, Noordin S, Umer M. Surgical management of metastatic lesions of proximal femur and the hip. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018;36:90-5.
15. Pramanik R, Gogia A, Malik PS, Gogi R. Metastatic primary angiosarcoma of the breast: Can we tame it the metronomic way. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2017;38:228-31.
16. Apice G, Pizzolorusso A, di Maio M, Grignani G, Gebbia V, Buonadonna A, et al. Confirmed activity and tolerability of weekly paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced angiosarcoma. Sarcoma 2016;2016:6862090.
17. Yu Z, Xiong Y, Shi R, Min L, Zhang W, Liu H, et al. Surgical management of metastatic lesions of the proximal femur with pathological fractures using intramedullary nailing or endoprosthetic replacement. Mol Clin Oncol 2017;8:107-14.
18. Sarahrudi K, Hora K, Heinz T, Millington S, Vécsei V. Treatment results of pathological fractures of the long bones: A retrospective analysis of 88 patients. Int Orthop 2006;30:519-24.


How to Cite this article: Naraval KYR, Carolino DKD, Jose MLMP | A Case Report of Solitary Bone Metastasis from Primary Angiosarcoma of the Bilateral Breasts – A Rare Diagnosis | Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors | Jan-Apr 2021; 7(1): 16-21.

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Treatment of GCT of Distal Radius Bone with Pre-operative Denosumab Plus Replacement by Distal Ulna and Ulnocarpal Arthrodesis: A Case Report

Case Report | Volume 7 | Issue 1 | JBST January – April 2021 | Page 9-11 | Francisco de Assis Serra Baima Filho. DOI: 10.13107/jbst.2021.v07i01.42

Author: Francisco de Assis Serra Baima Filho[1]

[1]Department of Orthopedics, Aldenora Bello Maranhao Institute of Oncology (IMOAB), São Luís, Brazil.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Francisco de Assis Serra Baima Filho,
Department of Orthopedics, Aldenora Bello Maranhao Institute of Oncology (IMOAB), São Luís, Brazil.
E-mail: assisbaima@gmail.com


Introduction: Giant-cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign tumor, however locally aggressive with a tendency for local recurrence and potential for metastasis. The distal radio is the third most frequent location, after the distal femur and proximal tibia. In Campanacci grade Grade III tumors, multiple reconstruction techniques after resection of the distal radius have been described, such as bone graft plus wrist arthrodesis. The use of the drug denosumab in the pre-operative period helps a surgery with less comorbidity, and limb preservation and reduces the chance of function loss. The objective is to report a case of a patient who underwent treatment of Campanacci grade Grade III distal radius bone GCT, with pre-operative denosumab application and resection surgery, replacement by bone graft (distal ulna), and ulnocarpal arthrodesis.
Methodology: Quantitative, descriptive, retrospective study by analyzing the medical record of a case report, plus literature study.
Conclusion: The use of pre-operative denosumab favors surgery with less comorbidity, ; however, more studies are needed in order to define the ideal dosage. Ulnar translocation with ulnar carpal arthrodesis has also proved to be a successful technique and further studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness.
Keywords: Giant -cell tumors of bone (MeSH ID: D018212), denosumab (MeSH ID: D000069448), arthrodesis (MeSH ID: D001174), case report (MeSH ID: D002363).


Reference:
1. Qi DW, Wang P, Ye ZM, Yu XC, Hu YC, Zhang GC, et al. Clinical and radiographic results of reconstruction with fibular autograft for distal radius giant cell tumor. Orthop Surg 2016;8:196-204.
2. Yang YF, Wang JW, Huang P, Xu ZH. Distal radius reconstruction with vascularized proximal fibular autograft after en-bloc resection of recurrent giant cell tumor. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2016;17:1-6.
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7. Bianchi G, Sambri A, Marini E, Piana R, Campanacci DA, Donati DM. Wrist arthrodesis and osteoarticular reconstruction in giant cell tumor of the distal radius. J Hand Surg Am 2020;2020:1-6.


How to Cite this article: de Assis Serra Baima Filho F. | Treatment of GCT of Distal Radius Bone with Pre-operative Denosumab Plus Replacement by Distal Ulna and Ulnocarpal Arthrodesis: A Case Report | Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors | Jan-Apr 2021; 7(1): 9-11.

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