Volume 3 | Issue 1 | May – Aug 2017 | Page 3-7 | Khushboo Pilania, Bhavin Jankharia
Authors: Khushboo Pilania , Bhavin Jankharia .
Consultant Radiologists, Picture This by Jankharia, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Bhavin Jankharia,
Bhaveshwar Vihar, 383 S V P Rd,
Mumbai – 400004, Maharashtra, India.
Giant cell tumor(GCT) of bone is a tumor of giant cell proliferation that usually affects men and women in the thirdand fourthdecades. Typical cases have straight-forward imaging appearances. Atypical cases may resemble many other benign and sometimes malignant lesions. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the mainstay of diagnosis, followed by biopsy and histology.Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) has a limited role to play.Aneurysmal bone cyst transformation within GCTs is known. This may change the imaging appearance. GCTs may be multifocal, locally aggressive, and may metastasize to nodes and lungs.Treatment with drugs like denosumab also changes the appearance on radiographs and MRI. Post-operative imaging can be a challenge, and picking up recurrence also requires high-quality radiographs, MRIs, and CT scans.
Keywords: Giant cell tumor, giant cell tumor, bone neoplasm, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiograph.
1. Chakarun CJ, Forrester DM, Gottsegen CJ, Patel DB, White EA, Matcuk GR Jr, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone: Review, mimics, and new developments in treatment. Radiographics 2013;33:197-211.
2. Dorfman HD, Czerniak B. Giant-cell lesions. In: Dorfman HD, Czerniak B, editors. Bone Tumors. St Louis, Mo: Mosby; 1998. p. 559-606.
3. Stacy GS, Peabody TD, Dixon LB. Mimics on radiography of giant cell tumor of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003;181:1583-9.
4. Cooper AS, Travers B. Surgical Essays. London, England: Cox Longman & Co.; 1818.
5. Murphey MD, Nomikos GC, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH, Temple HT, Kransdorf MJ, et al. From the archives of AFIP. Imaging of giant cell tumor and giant cell reparative granuloma of bone: Radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2001;21:1283-309.
6. Manaster BJ, Doyle AJ. Giant cell tumors of bone. Radiol Clin North Am 1993;31:299-323.
7. Moser RP Jr., Kransdorf MJ, Gilkey FW, Manaster BJ. From the archives of the AFIP. Giant cell tumor of the upper extremity. Radiographics 1990;10:83-102.
8. Puri A, Agarwal MG, Shah M, Jambhekar NA, Anchan C, Behle S, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop 2007;27:635-9.
9. Joyner CJ, Quinn JM, Triffitt JT, Owen ME, Athanasou NA. Phenotypic characterization of mononuclear and multinucleated cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Bone Miner 1992;16:37-48.
10. Frassica FJ, Sanjay BK, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Sim FH. Benign giant cell tumor. Orthopedics 1993;16:1179-83.
11. Kafchitsas K, Habermann B, Proschek D, Kurth A, Eberhardt C. Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence. Anticancer Res 2010;30:3795-9.
12. Turcotte RE. Giant cell tumor of bone. Orthop Clin North Am 2006;37:35-51.
13. Arnold RT, van Holsbeeck MT, Mayer TG, Mott MP, Koch SR. Best cases from the AFIP: Necrotic giant cell tumor of bone manifesting with pathologic fracture. Radiographics 2011;31:93-8.
14. Turcotte RE, Wunder JS, Isler MH, Bell RS, Schachar N, Masri BA, et al. Giant cell tumor of long bone: A Canadian sarcoma group study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2002;397:248-58.
15. Mendenhall WM, Zlotecki RA, Scarborough MT, Gibbs CP, Mendenhall NP. Giant cell tumor of bone. Am J Clin Oncol 2006;29:96-9.
16. Dahlin DC. Caldwell lecture. Giant cell tumor of bone: Highlights of 407 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1985;144:955-60.
17. Bandyopadhyay R, Biswas S, Bandyopadhyay SK, Ray MM. Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor. J Cancer Res Ther 2010;6:106-8.
18. Dhillon MS, Prabhudev Prasad A, Virk MS, Aggarwal S. Multicentric giant cell tumor involving the same foot: A case report and review of literature. Indian J Orthop 2007;41:154-7.
19. Varshney A, Rao H, Sadh R. Multicentric GCT of tarsal bones in an immature skeleton: A case report with review of literature. J Foot Ankle Surg 2010;49:399.
20. Novais EN, Shin AY, Bishop AT, Shives TC. Multicentric giant cell tumor of the upper extremities: 16 years of ongoing disease. J Hand Surg Am 2011;36:1610-3.
21. Okamoto Y, Mathew S, Daw NC, Neel MD, McCarville MB, Dome JS, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone with pulmonary metastases. Med Pediatr Oncol 2003;41:454-9.
22. Diel J, Ortiz O, Losada RA, Price DB, Hayt MW, Katz DS, et al.The sacrum: Pathologic spectrum, multimodality imaging, and subspecialty approach. Radiographics 2001;21:83-104.
23. Smith J, Wixon D, Watson RC. Giant-cell tumor of the sacrum. Clinical and radiologic features in 13 patients. J Can Assoc Radiol 1979;30:34-9.
24. Kwon JW, Chung HW, Cho EY, Hong SH, Choi SH, Yoon YC, et al. MRI findings of giant cell tumors of the spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007;189:246-50.
25. Anchan C. Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. Int J Shoulder Surg 2008;2:68.
26. Kransdorf MJ, Sweet DE. Aneurysmal bone cyst: Concept, controversy, clinical presentation, and imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;164:573-80.
27. Murphey MD, Flemming DJ, Torop AH, Smith SE, Sonin AH, Temple HT. Imaging differentiation of primary and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst with pathologic correlation (abstr). Radiology 1998;209:311.
28. Libicher M, Bernd L, Schenk JP, Mädler U, Grenacher L, Kauffmann GW, et al. Characteristic perfusion pattern of osseous giant cell tumor in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Radiologe 2001;41:577-82.
29. O’Connor W, Quintana M, Smith S, Willis M, Renner J. The hypermetabolic giant: 18F-FDG avid giant cell tumor identified on PET-CT. J Radiol Case Rep 2014;8:27-38.
30. Costelloe CM, Chuang HH, Madewell JE. FDG PET/CT of primary bone tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014;202:W521-31.
31. Tian R, Su M, Tian Y, Li F, Li L, Kuang A, et al.Dual-time point PET/CT with F-18 FDG for the differentiation of malignant and benign bone lesions. Skeletal Radiol 2009;38:451-8.
32. Salzer-Kuntschik M. Differential diagnosis of giant cell tumor of bone. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 1998;82:154-9.
33. Nedopil A, Raab P, Rudert M. Desmoplastic fibroma: A case report with three years of clinical and radiographic observation and review of the literature. Open Orthop J 2013;8:40-6.
34. Gong YB, Qu LM, Qi X, Liu JG. Desmoplastic fibroma in the proximal femur: A case report with long-term follow-up. Oncol Lett 2015;10:2465-7.
35. Pavlovic S, Valyi-Nagy T, Profirovic J, David O. Fine-needle aspiration of brown tumor of bone: Cytologic features with radiologic and histologic correlation. Diagn Cytopathol 2009;37:136-9.
36. Liu PT, Valadez SD, Chivers FS, Roberts CC, Beauchamp CP. Anatomically based guidelines for core needle biopsy of bone tumors: Implications for limb-sparing surgery. Radiographics 2007;27:189-205.
37. O’Donnell RJ, Springfield DS, Motwani HK, Ready JE, Gebhardt MC, Mankin HJ, et al. Recurrence of giant-cell tumors of the long bones after curettage and packing with cement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994;76:1827-33.
38. Lee FY, Montgomery M, Hazan EJ, Keel SB, Mankin HJ, Kattapuram S, et al. Recurrent giant-cell tumor presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A report of four cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999;81:703-7.
39. Remedios D, Saifuddin A, Pringle J. Radiological and clinical recurrence of giant-cell tumour of bone after the use of cement. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1997;79:26-30.
40. Thomas D, Henshaw R, Skubitz K, Chawla S, Staddon A, Blay JY, et al. Denosumab in patients with giant-cell tumour of bone: An open-label, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:275-80.
41. Hakozaki M, Tajino T, Yamada H, Hasegawa O, Tasaki K, Watanabe K, et al.Radiological and pathological characteristics of giant cell tumor of bone treated with denosumab. Diagn Pathol 2014;9:111.
42. Unni KK. Dahlin’s Bone Tumors: General Aspects and Data on 11,087 Cases. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.
|How to Cite this article: Pilania K, Jankharia B. Current Concepts in Imaging of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Journal of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors May-Aug 2017;3(1): 2-6.